Elucidating how the chemical-nutritional composition of tomato is affected by the environment, season, and growing system
Keywords:bioactive compounds, carotenoids, cultivation system, lycopene, Solanum lycopersicum
Tomatoes play an important nutritional role due to the chemical-nutritional composition of this fruit, and its common use in dishes and food products. Its fruits provide pronounced antioxidant properties to the human diet, because of the presence of vitamin C, carotenogenic compounds such as lycopene and β-carotene, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Despite this, the antioxidant function and carotenoid levels in tomato may present significant differences depending on the system of cultivation, growing season, and environment in which this vegetable is cultivated. In light of this, this study aimed to assess the effects of the cultivation system known as “Viçosa”, in relation to traditional tomato cultivation systems, over two seasons. This assessment was done both under field conditions and in a controlled environment. The nutritional aspects of the fruits, such as the levels of phenolic compounds, lycopene, beta-carotene, and antioxidant activity, were analyzed. The controlled environment in the autumn-winter season, associated with the Viçosa cultivation system, facilitated increases in the lycopene content. Furthermore, field cultivation provided an increase of 68% and 38% in the total phenolic concentration in tomato fruits, in the spring-summer and autumn-winter seasons, respectively. Field cultivation also provided an increase of 31% in the antioxidant activity of the fruits, compared with that of the controlled cultivation, in the autumn-winter season. The increase in the levels of total phenolics and antioxidant activity of fruits due to cultivation in the field represents an advantage as cultivation in this environment has a lower cost than cultivation in a controlled environment. The cultivation systems did not influence the chemical-nutritional aspects of fruits; moreover, the Viçosa system brings together aspects such as high productivity and profitability, without compromising the chemical-nutritional aspects of the fruits, thereby configuring a promising system for tomato production.
Aidoud A, Ammouche A, Garrido M, Rodriguez AB (2014). Effect of lycopene-enriched olive and argan oils upon lipid serum parameters in Wistar rats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94(14):2943-2950. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6638.
Almeida VS, Silva DJH, Gomes CN, Antonio AC, Moura AD, Lima ALR (2015). Sistema Viçosa para o cultivo de tomateiro. Horticultura Brasileira 33(1):074-079. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-053620150000100012.
Araújo JR, Gonçalves P, Marte F (2011). Chemopreventive effect of dietary polyphenols in colorectal cancer cell lines. Nutrition Research 31(2):77-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2011.01.006
Bohn T, Desmarchelier C, El SN, Keijer J, Schothorst EV, Rühl R, Borel P (2019). β-carotene in the human body: metabolic bioactivation pathways–from digestion to tissue distribution and excretion. The Proceedings of Nutrition Society 78(1):68-87. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002641
Bosetti C, Spertini L, Parpinel M, Gnagnarella P, Lagiou P, Negri E, ... La Vecchia C (2005). Flavonoids and breast cancer risk in Italy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 14(4):805-808. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0838.
Canella DS, Louzada ML da C, Claro RM, Calu J, Costa V, Bandoni DH, Levy RB, Martins APB (2018). Consumo de hortaliças e sua relação com os alimentos ultraprocessados no Brasil. Revista de Saúde Pública 52(50):1-11. https://doi.org/10.11606/S1518-8787.2018052000111.
Dannehl D, Huber C, Rocksch T, Huyskens-Keil S, Schmidt U (2012). Interactions between changing climate conditions in a semi-closed greenhouse and plant development, fruit yield, and health-promoting plant compounds of tomatoes. Scientia Horticulturae 138:235-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.02.022.
Dixon RA, Paiva NL (1995). Stress-Induced Phenylpropanoid Metabolism. The Plant Cell 7(7):1085-1097.
Dorais M, Ehret DL, Papadopoulos AP (2008). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) health components: from the seed to the consumer. Phytochemistry Reviews 7(2):231-250. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-007-9085-x.
Dumas Y, Dadomo M, Di Lucca G, Grolier P (2003). Effects of environmental factors and agricultural techniques on antioxidant content of tomatoes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83(5):369-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1370.
Fara SJ, Delazari FT, Gomes RS, Araújo WL, Silva DJH (2019). Stomata opening and productiveness response of fresh market tomato under different irrigation intervals. Scientia Horticulturae 255:86-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2019.05.025.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 2020 December 27 from: http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home
Gautier H, Diakou-Verdin V, Bénard C, Reich M, Buret M, Bourgaud F, Poëssel JL, Caris-Veyrat C, Génard M (2008). How does tomato quality (sugar, acid, and nutritional quality) vary with ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance?. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56(4):1241-1250. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf072196t.
Gauthier H, Rocci A, Buret M, Grasselly D, Causse M (2005). Fruit load or fruit position alters response to temperature and subsequently cherry tomato quality. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85:1009-1016. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2060.
Guimarães CM, Cunha FFD, Silva FCDS, Araújo ED, Guimarães ABF, Mantovani EC, Silva DJHD (2019). Agronomic performance of lettuce cultivars submitted to different irrigation depths. Plos One 14(12):1-19. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224264.
Hou X, Zhang W, Du T, Kang S, Davies WJ (2020). Responses of water accumulation and solute metabolism in tomato fruit to water scarcity and implications for main fruit quality variables. Journal of Experimental Botany 71(4):1249-1264. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz526.
Ilahy R, Hdider C, Lenucci MS, Tlili I, Dalessandro G (2011). Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound changes during fruit ripening of high-lycopene tomato cultivars. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 24(5):588-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.11.003.
Jayedi A, Rashidy-Pour A, Parohan M, Zargar MS, Shab-Bidar S (2018). Dietary antioxidants, circulating antioxidant concentrations, total antioxidant capacity, and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Advances in Nutrition 9(6):701-716. https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmy040.
Kähkönen MP, Hopia AI, Heinonen M (2001). Berry phenolics and their antioxidant activity. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 49(8):4076-4082. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010152t.
Kong KW, Rajab NF, Prasad KN, Ismail A, Markom M, Tan CP (2010). Lycopene- rich fractions derived from pink guava by-product and their potential activity towards hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular and DNA damage. Food Chemistry 123(4):1142-1148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.077.
Krumbein A, Schwarz D, Kla¨ring H-P (2006). Effects of environmental factors on carotenoid content in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.) grown in a greenhouse. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality 80:160-164.
Leiva-Brondo M, Valcárcel M, Cortés-Olmos C, Roselló S, Cebolla-Cornejo J, Nuez F (2012). Exploring alternative germplasm for the development of stable high vitamin C content in tomato varieties. Scientia Horticulturae 133:84-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCIENTA.2011.10.013.
Li Y, Wang H, Zhang Y, Martin C (2018). Can the world’s favorite fruit, tomato, provide an effective biosynthetic chassis for high-value metabolites?. Plant Cell Reports 37(10):1443-1450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-018-2283-8.
Li W, Wang M, Xiao X, Zhang B, Yang X (2015). Effects of air-impingement jet drying on drying kinetics, nutrient retention and rehydration characteristics of onion (Allium cepa) slices. International Journal of Food Engineering 11(3):435-446. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijfe-2014-0269.
Long J, Guan P, Hu X, Yang L, He1 L, Lin Q, Luo F, Li J, He X, Du Z, Li T (2021). Natural polyphenols as targeted modulators in colon cancer: molecular mechanisms and applications. Frontiers in Immunology 12:1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.635484.
Machado Junior R, Gomes RS, Almeida CF, Alves FM, Delazari FT, Laurindo RDF, Fernandes R H, Silva DJH (2017). Vegetable breeding as a strategy of biofortification in carotenoids and prevention of vitamin A deficiency. African Journal of Agricultural Research 12(13):1059-1066. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2016.11895.
Marsic NK, Vodnik D, Mikulic-Petkovsek M, Veberic R, Sircelj H (2018). Photosynthetic traits of plants and the biochemical profile of tomato fruits are influenced by grafting, salinity stress, and growing season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 66(22):5439-5450. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.8b00169.
Martí R, Leiva-Brondo M, Lahoz I, Campillo C, Cebolla-Cornejo J, Roselló S (2018). Polyphenol and L-ascorbic acid content in tomato as influenced by high lycopene genotypes and organic farming at different environments. Food Chemistry 239:148-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.06.102.
Martí R, Roselló S, Cebolla-Cornejo J (2016). Tomato as a source of carotenoids and polyphenols targeted to cancer prevention. Cancers Basel 8(6):1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers8060058.
Mirahmadi M, Azimi-Hashemi S, Saburi E, Kamali H, Pishbin M, Hadizadeh F (2020). Potential inhibitory effect of lycopene on prostate cancer. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 129:110459. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110459.
Nimse SB, Pal D (2015). Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances 5(35):27986-28006. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra13315c.
Padayatty SJ, Katz A, Wang Y, Eck P, Kwon O, Lee JH, … Levine M (2013). Vitamin C as an antioxidant: evaluation of its role in disease prevention. Journal of the American college of Nutrition 22(1):18-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2003.10719272.
Perveen R, Suleria HAR, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Pasha I, Ahmad S (2015). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoids and lycopenes chemistry; metabolism, absorption, nutrition, and allied health claims – a comprehensive review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55(7):919-929. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2012.657809.
Pinheiro-Sant'ana, HM. Stringheta PC, Brandão SCC, Azeredo RMC (1998). Carotenoid retention and vitamin A value in carrot (Daucus carota L.) prepared by food service. Food Chemistry 61(1-2):145-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(97)00084-8.
Rakic JM, Wang XD (2020). Role of lycopene in smoke-promoted chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung carcinogenesis. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 689:1-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108439.
Ribeiro AC, Guimarães PTG, Alvarez VH (1999). Recomendações para o uso de corretivos e fertilizantes em Minas Gerais, 5th ed. Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo - SBCS, Viçosa, MG.
Rodriguez-Amaya DB (2005). A guide to carotenoids analysis in foods. Washington, D. C., ILSI Press, pp 71.
Rodriguez-Amaya DB (1999). Latin American food sources of carotenoids. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 49(3):74S-84S.
Rodriguez DB, Raymundo LC, Lee T, Simpson KL, Chichester CO (1976). Carotenoid pigment changes in ripening Momordica charantia fruits. Annal of Botany 40(3):615-624. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a085171.
Rosales MA, Cervilla LM, Sánchez‐Rodríguez E, Rubio‐Wilhelmi MDM, Blasco B, Ríos JJ, Soriano T, … Ruiz JM (2010). The effect of environmental conditions on nutritional quality of cherry tomato fruits: evaluation of two experimental Mediterranean greenhouses. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 91(1):152-162. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4166.
Rossi M, Negri E, Talamini R, Bosetti C, Parpinel M, Gnagnarella P, … La Vecchia C (2006). Flavonoids and colorectal cancer in Italy. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 15:1555-1558. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-06-0017.
Ruiz-Nieves JM, Ayala-Garay OJ, Serra V, Dumont D, Vercambre G, Génard M, Gautier H (2021). The effects of diurnal temperature rise on tomato fruit quality. Can the management of the greenhouse climate mitigate such effects? Scientia Horticulturae 278:109836. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2020.109836.
Salomon MV, Piccoli P, Fontana A (2020). Simultaneous determination of carotenoids with different polarities in tomato products using a C30 core-shell column based approach. Microchemical Journal 159:105390. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2020.105390.
Schofield A, Paliyath G (2005). Modulation of carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit ripening through phytochrome regulation of phytoene synthase activity. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 43(12):1052-1060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.10.006.
Sun Y, Shen Y, Liu D, Ye X (2015). Effects of drying methods on phytochemical compounds and antioxidant activity of physiologically dropped un-matured citrus fruits. LWT-Food Science and Technology 60(2):1269-1275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.09.001.
Tan S, Ke Z, Chai D, Miao Y, Luo K, Li W (2021). Lycopene, polyphenols and antioxidant activities of three characteristic tomato cultivars subjected to two drying methods. Food Chemistry 338:128062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128062.
Tan S, Zhao X, Yang Y, Ke Z, Zhou Z (2016). Chemical Profiling Using Uplc Q‐Tof/Ms and Antioxidant Activities of Fortunella Fruits. Journal of food science 81(7):C1646-C1653. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.13352.
Vasconcelos AG, Amorima A das GN, Santos RC dos, Souza JMT, Souza LKM, Araújo T de SL, ... Leite JR de SA (2017). Lycopene rich extract from red guava (Psidium guajava L.) displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile by reducing suggestive hallmarks of acute inflammatory response in mice. Food Research International 99:959-968. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2017.01.017
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Victor de Souza ALMEIDA, Ednângelo D. PEREIRA, Ronaldo S. GOMES, Nathália M. de ARAÚJO, Rolando I.C. CABALLERO, Higor da Costa Ximenes de SOUZA, Cleverson Freitas de ALMEIDA, Derly José Henriques da SILVA
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Journal:
The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restriction. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.