Palynological diversity of highly medicinal rare, endangered, and threatened plants from Western Himalaya, India

Authors

  • Bushan KUMAR CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad (IN)
  • Kanwaljeet SINGH CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K (IN)
  • Pankaj KUMAR CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad (IN)
  • Zohra BATOOL CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad (IN)
  • Shakti K. DHIMAN CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K (IN)
  • Sumeet GAIROLA CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Plant Sciences Division, Canal Road, Jammu – 180001, J&K; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad (IN)

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50312787

Keywords:

exine ornamentation, pollen morphology, RET plants, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Western Himalaya

Abstract

The present study investigated the palynological diversity of highly medicinal Rare, Endangered, and Threatened (RET) plant species dwelling in higher altitudes of Western Himalaya, India. The pollen morphology of 32 plant species covering 29 genera, 23 families, and 18 orders of Angiosperms was analyzed by Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The families of the studied plant species have been arranged and discussed following the evolutionary sequence as per the updated version of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group ІV. The studied pollen characters were found to be helpful in the delimitation of taxa at the species level. In the studied monocots, the species belonging to order Zingiberales, Asparagales, and Liliales followed the general trend of having primitive inaperturate to advance monosulcate pollen except for Alismatales which had inaperturate pollen and placed after the orders mentioned above in the APG ІV classification system. The pollen aperture of the eudicot group in the present study followed the evolutionary pattern from tricolpate to tricolporate and triporate, which corroborated previous reports. All the investigated species of both monocot and eudicot groups had monad pollen units suggesting their primitiveness on the evolutionary scale except for the Rhododendron companulatum (Ericales), having evolutionarily advanced tetrad arrangement. The current study found primitive exine ornamentation in Ranunculales to advance in Asterales, Lamiales, Gentianales, and Boraginales and confirms the results of the previous studies. The data on the pollen morphological features of the studied species generated in the present study will help understand these important high-altitude plant species' reproductive biology and conservation aspects.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Ahmad M, Bano A, Zafar M, Khan MA, Chaudhary MJI, Sultana S (2013). Pollen morphology of some species of the family Asteraceae from the alpine zone, Deosai Plateau, northern Pakistan. Palynology 37:189-195. https://doi.org/10.1080/01916122.2012.758920

Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ahmad M, Abbas Q, Ayoub M, … Ullah F (2018). Identification of green energy ranunculaceous flora of district Chitral, Northern Pakistan using pollen features through scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy Research and Technique 81:1004-1016. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23066

Ahmad SS, Mahmood F, Dogar ZH, Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Sher M, Valeem EE (2010). Prioritization of medicinal plants of Margala hills National Park, Islamabad on the basis of available information. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41:2105-2114.

Akyalcin H, Arabaci T, Yildiz B (2011). Pollen morphology of six Achillea L. sect. Achillea (Asteraceae) species in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany 35:183-201. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1005-23

APG (1998). An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 85:531-553.

APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group) III. (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 161:105-121.

APG II (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 14:399-436.

Balkrishna A (2012). Secrets of Astavarga Plants (for vitality and anti-aging). Divya Prakashan, Patanjali Yogpeeth, Uttarakhand, India.

Bano A, Ahmad M, Khan MA, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ullah Z (2012). Pollen morphology of four endemic species of Pedicularis L. from alpine zone of the Deosai Plateau, Himalayan range. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 19:1-5. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v19i1.10935

Bano A, Rashid S, Ahmad M, Bhatti GR, Yaseen G, Anjum F, … Adeel M (2020). Comparative pollen and foliar micromorphological studies using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of some selected species of Lamiaceae from Alpine Zone of Deosai Plateau, Western Himalayas. Microscopy Research and Technique 83:579-588. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23448

Başer B, Fırat M, Aziret A (2016). The pollen morphology of Pelargonium endlicherianum and Pelargonium quercetorum (Geraniaceae) in Turkey. PhytoKeys 75:153-162. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.75.11011

Baser B, Firat M, Binzet R (2019). Pollen morphological study on some rare Allium L. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa in Turkey. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 26:47-55. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v26i1.41916

Blackmore S (2000). The palynological compass: The contribution of palynology to systematics. In: Nordenstam B, El-Ghazaly G, Kassas M (Eds). Plant Systematics for the 21st Century. Portland Press, London, pp 161-177.

Blackmore S, Cannon N (1983). Palynology and systematics of Morinaceae. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 40:207-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(83)90037-4

Bordbar F, Mirtadzadini M (2015). Palynological study of Jurinea (Asteraceae) and related genera from flora of Iran. Plant Systematics and Evolution 301:151-162. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-014-1061-5

Çeter T, Pinar NM, İnceer H, Hayirlioğlu-Ayaz S, Yaprak AE (2013). The comparative pollen morphology of genera Matricaria L. and Tripleurospemum Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) in Turkey. Plant Systematics and Evolution 299:959-977. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00606-013-0776-z

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, Chase MW, Christenhusz MJM, Fay MF, Byng JW, Judd WS, Soltis DE, Mabberley DJ, Sennikov AN, Soltis PS, Stevens PF (2016). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1):1-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385”

Chassot P, Von Hagen KB (2008). Pollen morphology of the Swertiinae (Gentianaceae): phylogenetic implications. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 157:323-341. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2008.00798.x

Chauhan, NS (1999). Medicinal and aromatic plants of Himachal Pradesh. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi.

Chen J, Xia NH (2011). Pollen morphology of Chinese Curcuma L. and Boesenbergia Kuntz (Zingiberaceae) taxonomic implications. Flora – Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants 206:458-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2011.01.007

Chen WW, He XJ, Zhang XM, Pu JX (2007). Pollen morphology of the genus Angelica from Southwest China and its systematic evolution analysis. Acta Botanica Sinica 27:1364-1372.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra C (1956). Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. CSIR, New Delhi.

Chowdhery HJ, Wadhwa BM (1984). Flora of Himachal Pradesh. (Vol. 3). Botanical Survey of India, Howrah, New Delhi.

Davis OK (1984). Pollen frequencies reflect vegetation patterns in a Great Basin (USA) mountain range. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 40:295-315. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-6667(84)90013-7

Devender R, Ganga Kailas J, Ramakrishna H (2016). Microscopical analysis of Apis dorsata and Apis cerana Honeys from South Telangana State. Advances in Plant Sciences 29:27-33.

Devi K, Samant SS, Puri S, Paul S, Dutt S (2019). Diversity, distribution pattern and indigenous uses of medicinal plants in Kanawar Wildlife Sanctuary of Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Conservation Biology 117:172-219.

Donoghue MJ, Doyle, JA (1989). Phylogenetic analysis of angiosperms and the relationships of Hamamelidae. In: Crane PR, Blackmore S (Eds). Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamamelidae. Vol. 1. Clarendon, Oxford, pp 17-45.

Doyle JA, Hotton CL (1991). Diversification of early angiosperm pollen in a cladistic context. In: Blackmore S, Barnes SH (Eds). Pollen and Spores: Patterns of Diversification. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 169-195.

eFloras (2021). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge. Retrieved 2021 February 22 from: http://www.efloras.org/

Erdtman G (1952). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. An introduction to palynology 1. Almquist and Wiksell, Stockholm.

Farooq U, Saggoo MIS (2014). Cytomorphological investigations in Oxyria digyana Hill from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Cytology and Genetics 48:42-48. https://doi.org/10.3103/S0095452714010101

Furness CA, Gregory T, Rudall PJ (2015). Pollen structure and diversity in Liliales. International Journal of Plant Sciences 176:697-723.

Gaur RD (1999). Flora of District Garhwal: North West Himalaya (with Ethnobotanical notes). Transmedia, Srinagar, Garhwal.

Gautam MR (2013). Climate Change in the Himalayas: Current State of Knowledge. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper. https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6516

Halbritter H, Buchner R (2016). Roscoea cautleyoides. PalDat - A palynological database. Retrieved 2021 August 20 from: https://www.paldat.org/pub/Roscoea_cautleyoides/301085

Halbritter H, Ulrich S, Grímsson F, Weber M, Zetter R, Hesse M (2018). Illustrated Pollen Terminology. (2nd ed), Springer.

Hayrapetyan A, Bruch AA (2020). Pollen morphology of some species of the genus Quercus L. (Fagaceae) in the Southern Caucasus and adjacent areas. Acta Palaeobotanica 1:1-42. https://doi.org/10.35535/acpa-2020-0001

Hebda RJ, Chinnappa CC (1994). Studies on pollen morphology of Rosaceae. Acta Botanica Gallica 141:183-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/12538078.1994.10515150

Henderson DM (1965). The pollen morphology of Meconopsis. Grana Palynologica 6:191-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173136509429146

Hesse M, Halbritter H, Weber M, Buchner R, Frosch-Radivo A, Ulrich S (2009). Pollen Terminology. An Illustrated Handbook. Springer-Verlag, Wien.

Hong SP, Oh IC, Son SH (1998). Pollen morphology of the tribe Pterostegieae (Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae). Grana 37:15-21. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173139809362634

Hooker JD (1890). Flora of British India. (Vol. 5). Reeve & Co: London.

Hsieh TY, Hsu TC, Kono Y, Ku SM, Peng CI (2007). Gentiana bambuseti (Gentianaceae), a new species from Taiwan. Botancal Studies 48:349-355.

Kahraman A, Celep F, Dogan M (2010). Anatomy, trichome morphology and palynology of Salvia chrysophylla Stapf (Lamiaceae). South African Journal of Botany 76:187-195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2009.10.003

Kayani S, Hussain M, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Butt MA, Ali S, Shah GM, Mir S (2019). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Light Microscopy (LM)‐based palyno‐morphological views of Solanaceae in Western Himalaya. Microscopy Research and Technique 82:63-74. https://doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23097

Keshavarzi M, Abassian S, Sheidai M (2012). Pollen morphology of the genus Clypeola (Brassicaceae) in Iran. Phytologia Balcanica 18:17-24.

Keshavarzi M, Ebrahimzade AF, Tirtasah H, Sheidail M (2011). Pollen morphology of the genus Fumaria L. (Papaveraceae) in Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 17:98-104.

Khare CP (2007). Indian medicinal plants an illustrated dictionary. Springer-Verlag: Berlin/Heidelberg.

Khatamsaz M (2001). Pollen morphology of Iranian Boraginaceae family and its taxonomic significance. Iranian Journal of Botany 1:27-40.

Kirtikar KR, Basu BD (1984). Indian medicinal plants. (Vol. 2). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh: Dehradun.

Kumar S, Samant SS, Puri S (2018). Diversity, distribution, indigenous uses and conservation of medicinal plants in central Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 6:45-68.

Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N (2003). Medicinal and poisonous plants 3. Backhuys Publishers.

Luo Y, Lu L, Wortley AH, Li DZ, Wang H, Blackmore S (2015). Evolution of Angiosperm Pollen. 3. Monocots. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 101:406-455.

Malik AR, Siddique MAA, Sofi PA, Butola JS (2011). Ethnomedicinal practices and conservation status of medicinal plants of North Kashmir Himalayas. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 5:515-530.

Mangaly JK, Nayar J (1990). Palynology of South Indian Zingiberaceae. Botanical Journal of Linnean Society 103:351-366. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1990.tb00195.x

Manjkhola S, Dhar U, Rawal RS (2003). Treatments to improve seed germination of Arnebia benthamii: an endangered medicinal herb of high-altitude Himalaya. Seed Science and Technology 31:571-577. https://doi.org/10.15258/sst.2003.31.3.06

Meerow AW, Dehgan B (1988). Pollen morphology of the Eucharideae (Amaryllidaceae). American Journal of Botany 75:1857-1870. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1537-2197.1988.tb11266.x

Melkani AB, Mohan L, Pant CC, Negi A, Dev V (2011). Terpenoid composition and Antibacterial activity of essential oil from Salvia hians Royle ex. Benth. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants 14:667-672. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2011.10643987

Mir PA, Dar MA, Mohi-ud-din R, Bader GN (2019). Evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of Arisaema propinquum Schott rhizomes. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceuticals Sciences 2:120.

Mohan M, Haider SZ, Gautam SS, Singh, P (2019). Allium strachyei (Baker), the endangered and traditional medicinally important herb of Uttarakhand Himalaya India: A Review. Research in Pharmacy 9:1-5. https://doi.org/10.25081/rip.2019.v9.5486

Mohsenzadeh S, Sheidai M, Ghahremaninejad F, Koohdar F (2020). A palynological study of the genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae). Grana 1:454-465. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2020.1736147

Moore PD., Webb JA, Collinson ME (1991). An illustrated guide to pollen analysis. (2nd ed), Blackwell Scientific Publications: UK.

Muller J (1979). Form and function in angiosperm pollen. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66:593-632. https://doi.org/10.2307/2398913

Nair PKK, Sharma M (1965). Pollen morphology of Liliaceae. Journal of Palynology 1:38-61.

Namgay S, Sridith K (2021). The morphological variation of the genus Rhododendron (Ericaceae) in Himalayan Ranges of Bhutan. Tropical Natural History 21:299-320.

Narasimham KRSL, Ravuru BK (2003). A note on some endangered medicinal plants as NTFPs of Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh. EPTRI-NVIS Newsletter. 9:11-12.

Negi VS, Maikhuri RK, Maletha A, Phondani PC (2019). Ethnobotanical knowledge and population density of threatened medicinal plants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalaya, India. Iranian Journal of Sciences and Technology, Transaction A: Science 43:63-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40995-018-0545-5

Nowicke JW (1968). Palynotaxonomic study of the Phytolaccaceae source. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 55:294-364. https://doi.org/10.2307/2395128

Nowicke JW, Skvarla JJ (1979). Pollen morphology: The potential influence in higher order systematics. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 66:633-700. https://doi.org/10.2307/2398914

Nowicke JW, Skvarla JJ (1981). Pollen morphology and phylogenetic relationships of the Berberidaceae. (Vol. 50). Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Olga G, Jan B, Radovan O, Svetlana K (2013). Pollen characteristics in some Diospyros species. Modern Phytomorphology 3:45-50.

Oybak DE, IşIK S (2008). Pollen morphology of Turkish Amaryllidaceae, Ixioliriaceae and Iridaceae. Grana 47:15-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173130701860104

Özler H, Pehlivan S, Kahraman A, Doğan M, Celep F, Başer B et al. (2011). Pollen morphology of the genus Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) in Turkey. Flora: Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants 206:316-327. https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1209-50

PalDat, PalDat- a palynological database (2020). Retrieved on 10.08.2021 from https://www.Paldat.org

Panicker KTC (2004). Studies in the pollen morphology of Mimosaeae monads, tetrad and octad taxa. Journal of Palynology 40:9-21.

Pant S, Pant VS (2011). Status and conservation management strategies for threatened plants of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Phytology 3:50-56.

Pérez-Gutiérrez MA, Suárez-Santiago VN, Fernández MC, Bonillo MJS, Romero-García, AT (2015). Pollen morphology and post-tetrad wall development in the subfamily Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 222:33-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2015.07.009

Perveen A (2006). A contribution to the pollen morphology of family Gramineae. World Applied Sciences Journal 1:60-65.

Perveen A, Qaiser M (2006). Pollen flora of Pakistan-L. Ranunculaceae. Pakistan Journal of Botany 38:499-509.

Perveen A, Qaiser M (2009). Pollen flora of Pakistan-LXIV: Saxifragaceae. Pakistan Journal of Botany 41:1531-1538.

Perveen A, Qaiser M (2010). Pollen flora of Pakistan–LXV. Berberidaceae. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42:1-6.

Polunin O, Stainton A (1984). Flowers of the Himalaya. UK: Oxford University Press.

Pozhidaev AE (1995). Pollen morphology of the genus Aesculus (Hippocastanaceae) Patterns in the variety of morphological characteristics. Grana 1:10-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/00173139509429028

Punt W, Hoen PP, Blackmore S, Nilsson S, Le Thomas A (2007). Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143:1-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revpalbo.2006.06.008

Rashid S, Kaloo ZA, Singh S, Bashir I (2014). Callus induction and shoot regeneration from rhizome explant of Rheum webbianum Royle - A threatened medicinal plant growing in Kashmir Himalaya. Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 3:515-518.

Rawat GS, Adhikari BS, Tiwari UK, Chandola S, Raut N (2016). Medicinal plants of Garhwal region Uttarakhand: a baseline on the status and distribution. Wildlife Institute of India and Uttarakhand Forest Development Corporation Dehradun, India.

Renner SS, Murray D, Foreman D (2000). Timing transantarctic disjunctions in the Atherospermataceae (Laurales): Evidence from coding and non-coding chloroplast sequences. Systematic Biology 49:579-591. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635159950127402

Sarwar AG, Takahashi H (2013). Pollen morphology of Rhododendron L. and related genera and its taxonomic significance. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 22:185-199. https://doi.org/10.3329/bjpt.v20i2.17393

Shabir M, Agnihotri P, Husain D, Tiwari JK, Husain T (2017). On the current status of the genus Gentiana L. (Gentianaceae) in India. Pleione 11:16-24.

Shaheen S, Yameen B, Hussain M, Iqbal M, Saira H, Safdar I, Laraib S (2017). A review on Geranium wallichianum D-Don Ex-sweet: An endangered medicinal herb from Himalaya region. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 6:288-293. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-0412.1000288

Sharma BM, Kachroo P (1981). Flora of Jammu and Plants of Neighborhood. (Vol. 1). Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun.

Sharma BS, Bhat, NS (2015). Pollen identification using morphological characters. National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP). Department of Apiculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, India.

Sharma OR, Arya D, Goel S, Vyas K, Shinde P (2018). Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D. Don (Nagchatri): an important ethnomedicinal plant of Himalayan region (Himachal Pradesh). Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 6:11-13.

Shehata AA (2008). Pollen morphology of Egyptian Geraniaceae: An assessment of taxonomic value. International Journal of Botany 4:314-316. https://doi.org/10.3923/ijb.2008.67.76

Siahkolaee SN, Sheidai M, Assadi M, Noormohammadi Z (2017). Pollen morphological diversity in the genus Acer L. (Sapindaceae) in Iran. Acta Biologica Szegediensis 61:95-104.

Simpson BB, Skvarla JJ (1981). Pollen morphology and ultrastructure of Krameria (Krameriaceae): Utility in questions of intrafamilial and interfamilial classification. American Journal of Botany 68:277-294. https://doi.org/10.2307/2442860

Singh D, Dathan A (1980). Programme and Abstracts. Conference on the Biology and Chemistry of the Cucurbitaceae; August 3-6; Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Singh DK, Hajra PK (1996). Floristic diversity. Biodiversity Status in the Himalaya. New Delhi: British Council, pp 23-38.

Singh G, Chandra N, Lingwal S, Bisht MPS, Tiwari LM (2020). Distribution and threat assessment of an endemic and endangered species Angelica glauca in high ranges of western Himalaya. Journal of Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants 26:394-404. https://doi.org/10.1080/10496475.2020.1748783

Singh K, Sharma YP, Sharma, PR, Gairola S (2020). Pollen morphology and variability of the Rosa L. species of Western Himalaya in India. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 67:2129-2148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-020-00967-8

Singh NP, Sanjappa M (2006). Fascicles of Flora of India. Fascicle 23. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, India.

Takahashi M (1983). Pollen morphology in Asiatic species of Trillium. Botanical Magzine (Tokyo) 96:377-384. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02488182

Tanţău I, Geantă A, Feurdean A, Tămaş T (2014). Pollen analysis from a high-altitude site in Rodna Mountains (Romania). Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 9:23-30.

Tiwari UK, Adams SJ, Begum SN, Krishnamurthy KV, Ravikumar K, Padma V (2014). Pharmacognostic studies on two Himalayan species of traditional medicinal value: Allium wallichii and Allium stracheyi. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 6:149-154. https://doi.org/10.15835/nsb629308

Tomsovic P (1997). Some palynological observations on the genus Echinops (Asteraceae) and their taxonomic implications. Preslia Pracha 69:31-33.

Vikram SR (2014). Indigenous uses of medicinal and edible plants of Nanda Devi biosphere reserve- a review based on previous studies. Global Journal of Research on Medicinal plants and Indigenous Medicines 3:57-66.

Walker JW, Doyle JA (1975). The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: palynology. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 1:664-723. https://doi.org/10.2307/2395271

Wodehouse RP (1935). Pollen Grains: Their Structure, Identification and Significance in Science and Medicine. New York (NY), McGraw-Hill.

WOI (2000). The Wealth of India—a dictionary of Indian raw material and industrial products (Vol. 1). CSIR, New Delhi.

Wortley AH, Wang H, Lu L, Li DZ, Blackmore S (2015). Evolution of angiosperm pollen. 1. Introduction. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 100:177-226. https://doi.org/10.3417/2012047

Yang M, Zhang D, Zheng J, Liu J (2001). Pollen morphology and its systematic and ecological significance in Rheum (Polygonaceae) from China. Nordic Journal of Botany 21:411-418. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2001.tb00789.x

Zhang MY, Lu L, Wortley AH, Wang H, Li DZ, Blackmore S (2017). Evolution of angiosperm pollen: 4. Basal Eudicots 1. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 102:141-182.

Published

2022-08-25

How to Cite

KUMAR, B., SINGH, K., KUMAR, P., BATOOL, Z., DHIMAN, S. K., & GAIROLA, S. (2022). Palynological diversity of highly medicinal rare, endangered, and threatened plants from Western Himalaya, India. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(3), 12787. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha50312787

Issue

Section

Research Articles
CITATION
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50312787

Most read articles by the same author(s)