Incidence and possible sources of Tomato spotted wilt virus in tobacco grown in Denizli Province, Turkey


  • Nihan GÜNEŞ Ege University, Bornova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 35100 İzmir (TR)
  • Süleyman G. TÜRKSEVEN Ege University, Bornova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 35100 İzmir (TR)
  • Pınar ÖZSARI Ege University, Bornova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 35100 İzmir (TR)
  • Mustafa GÜMÜŞ Ege University, Bornova, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, 35100 İzmir (TR)
  • Damla BAYSAL SİVRİTEPE Socotab Leaf Tobacco Industry and Trade Inc. İzmir (TR)



DAS-ELISA, tobacco, thrips, TSWV, viruses, weeds


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is economically prominent disease for its impact on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) production worldwide. An increase of the incidence of symptoms typical of TSWV has been observed in tobacco production areas in Denizli province of Turkey where tobacco is significantly grown. Surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence status of TSWV in tobacco cultivars and its possible sources of infections in four tobacco growing districts of Denizli province. A total of 501 plant samples from field-grown tobaccos, weeds, potential intermediate hosts, seedlings and seeds were collected during 2019 and tested by DAS-ELISA. Of these plants, 243 belong to 55 different weed species from 26 different families with intermediate host potential. Throughout the study, 40 crop plant samples which could be intermediate hosts and 39 tobacco seed samples were also taken for testing. Adult thrips specimens were picked up from the fields and brought to the laboratory for preparations. Four vector virus species were detected when adult thrips individuals were diagnosed: Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Aeolothrips intermedius Bagnall (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) and Thrips major Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Of the 179 tobaccos sampled, 31.2% was positive; besides, of 243 weeds tested 10 were found to be infected. Echinochloa crus-galli and Tordylium apulum were determined to be new host recordings for TSWV infection. Only one tomato plant from the crop plants as intermediate hosts was infected. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) was also confirmed in tobacco fields.


Metrics Loading ...


Alavi J, Minaei K (2018). Studies on the genus Aeolothrips (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) in Iran, with a key to species. Zootaxa 4446(3):343-360. DOI:

Anonymous (2008). Plant protection technical instructions. Ministry of Agriculture, General Directorate of Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 332, Ankara-Turkey.

Arlı Sokmen M, Mennan H, Sevik M A, Ecevit O (2005). Occurrence of viruses in field- grown pepper crops and some of their reservoir weed hosts in Samsun, Turkey. Phytoparasitica 33(4):347-358. DOI:

Atakan E, Kamberoğlu MA, Uygur S (2013). Role of weed hosts and the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, in epidemiology of Tomato spotted wilt virus in the Çukurova region of Turkey. Phytoparasitica 41(5):577-590. DOI:

Atakan E, Pehlivan S, Ölçülü M (2014). Farklı renkteki yapışkan tuzakların nektarindeki Thrips major Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)’a Çekicilikleri [Attraction of colored sticky traps to Thrips major Uzel (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) in nectarine]. Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi 38(1):51-60. DOI:

Azeri T (1981). Preliminary report of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and its epidemy on tobacco in the Çanakkale region of Turkey. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology.

Chatzivassiliou EK, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis NI (2001). Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease 85(1):40-46. DOI:

Chatzivassiliou EK, Efthimiou K, Drossos E, Papadopoulou A, Poimenidis G, Katis NI (2004). A survey of tobacco viruses in tobacco crops and native flora in Greece. European Journal of Plant Pathology 10:1011-1023. DOI:

Cho JJ, Mau RFL, Gonsalves D, Mitchell WC (1986). Reservoir weed hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease 70:1014-1017. DOI:

Davis PH (1965-1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vols 1-9. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. DOI:

Delić D, Balech B, Radulović M, Đurić Z, Lolić B, Santamaria M, Đurić G (2018). Molecular identification of Tomato spotted wilt virus on pepper and tobacco in Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina). European Journal of Plant Pathology 150(3):785-789. DOI:

Dikova B (2013). Essential oil-bearing and medicinal plants–new hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Bulgaria. Science & Technologies 3(6):10-16.

FAO (2019). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved in May, 25, 2021 from

Erdem N (2010). Samsun ilinde tütün (Nicotiana tabacum L.) yetiştirilen alanlarda enfeksiyon oluşturan virüslerin belirlenmesi [Detection of viruses infecting tobacco (Nicotinia tabacum L.) in Samsun province]. MSc Thesis. Univ. Ondokuz Mayıs, Samsun, Turkey.

Grieco PD, Conte D, Munno I, Nuzzaci M, Stradis AD (2000). Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on weeds and wild plants in Metapontum area, Basilicata [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.]. Informatore Fitopatologico (Italy).

Groves RL, Walgenbach JF, Moyer JW, Kennedy GG (2002). The role of weed hosts and tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca, in the epidemiology of Tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease 86(6):573-582. DOI:

Günay A (2019). Adıyaman ili tütün üretim alanlarındaki bazı tütün virüslerinin multipleks RT-PCR yöntemi ile araştırılması ve bazı virüs izolatlarının moleküler karakterizasyonu [The investigation of some tobacco viruses in tobacco fields of Adıyaman by multiplex RT-PCR method and the molecular characterization of some virus isolates.]. MSc Thesis. Univ. Van Yüzüncü Yıl, Van, Turkey.

Hosford RM (1967). Transmission of plant viruses by dodder. Botanical Review 33:387-406. DOI:

Kirk WD, Terry LI (2003). The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 5(4):301-310. DOI:

Jones DR (2005). Plant viruses transmitted by thrips. European Journal of Plant Pathology 113:119-157. DOI:

Jordá C, Ortega A, Juarez M (1995). New hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease 79:5. DOI:

Jordá C, Font I, Lázaro, A, Juarez, M, Ortega A, Lacasa A (2000). New natural hosts of Tomato spotted wilt virus. Plant Disease 84(4):489-489. DOI:

Lavina A, Aramburu J, Moriones E (1996). Occurrence of tomato spotted wilt and cucumber mosaic viruses in field‐grown tomato crops and associated weeds in northeastern Spain. Plant Pathology 45(5):837-842. DOI:

Martinez-Ochoa N, Csinos AS, Whitty EB, Johnson AW, Parrish M J (2003). First report on the incidence of mixed infections of Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV) and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tobacco grown in Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia. Plant Health Progress 4(1):40. DOI:

Mason G, Roggero P, Tavella L (2003). Detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus in its vector Frankliniella occidentalis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 109:69-73. DOI:

Mayunga DS, Kapooria RG (2003). Incidence and identification of virus diseases of tobacco in three provinces of Zambia. EPPO Bulletin 33(2): 355-359. DOI:

McPherson RM, Pappu HR, Jones DC (1999). Occurrence of five thrips species on flue-cured tobacco and impact on spotted wilt disease incidence in Georgia. Plant Disease 83:765-767. DOI:

Mila AL (2011). Explaining loss caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus on tobacco with boreal winter weather: a Bayesian approach. Phytopathology 101(4) M: 462-469. DOI:

Nagata T, Inoue-Nagata AK, Smid HM, Goldbach R, Peters D (1999). Tissue tropism related to vector competence of Frankliniella occidentalis for Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Journal of General Virology 80:507-515. DOI:

Özsemerci F (2007). Manisa ilinde çekirdeksiz üzüm bağlarında bulunan Thysanoptera türlerinin yayılışı, popülasyon değişimi ve önemli zararlı türün biyolojisi üzerinde araştırmalar [Researches on spread and population fluctuation of the Thysanoptera species found in the seedles grape vineyards in Manisa province and the biology of the important harmful species]. PhD Thesis. Ege Üniv, İzmir, pp121.

Stanković I, Bulajić A, Vučurović A, Ristić D, Milojević K, Berenji J, Krstić B (2011). Status of tobacco viruses in Serbia and molecular characterization of tomato spotted wilt virus isolates. Acta Virologica 55:337-347. DOI:

Tomaru K, Kubo S, Takanamı Y (1982). Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in tobacco plants in Ryukyu Islands. Japanese Journal of Phytopathology. 48(3): 336-339. DOI:

Whitfield AE, Ullman DE, German TL (2005). Tospovirus-Thrips interactions. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43:459-489. DOI:

Wilson CR (1998). Incidence of weed reservoirs and vectors of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus on southern Tasmanian lettuce farms. Plant Pathology 47(2):171-176. DOI:

Wijkamp I, Alarza N, Goldbach R, Peters D (1995). Distinct levels of specificity in thrips transmission of tospoviruses. Phytopathology 85:1069-1107. DOI:



How to Cite

GÜNEŞ, N., TÜRKSEVEN, S. G., ÖZSARI, P., GÜMÜŞ, M., & BAYSAL SİVRİTEPE, D. (2022). Incidence and possible sources of Tomato spotted wilt virus in tobacco grown in Denizli Province, Turkey. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 50(2), 12529.



Research Articles
DOI: 10.15835/nbha50212529